agni ṛgveda 1, 77

ṛṣi: Gotama Rāhūgaṇa, 5 versi, metro triṣṭubh

स नो नृणां नृतमो रिशादा अग्निर्गिरोऽवसा वेतु धीतिं ।
तना च ये मघवानः शविष्ठा वाजप्रसूता इषयंत मन्म ॥

sa no̍ nṛ̱ṇāṁ nṛta̍mo ri̱śādā̍ a̱gnirgiro ‘va̍sā vetu dhī̱tim |
tanā̍ ca̱ ye ma̱ghavā̍na̱ḥ śavi̍ṣṭhā̱ vāja̍prasūtā i̱ṣaya̍nta̱ manma̍ ||4||

Traduzione parola per parola
Per noi (naḥ) Egli (saḥ, agni), uomo (nṛṇām) estremamente coraggioso (nṛtamaḥ), distruttore dei nemici (riśādāḥ), agni l’invocatore (agnirgiraḥ) attraverso la protezione (avasā) avvicini (vetu) il pensiero (dhītim) .

e (ca) coloro (ye) che distribuiscono prosperità (maghavānaḥ), i discendenti (tanā), i più potenti (śaviṣṭhāḥ), spronati dal coraggio (vājaprasūtāḥ), che rinvigoriscano (iṣayanta) l’intelletto (manma).

traduzione Brereton-Jamison1
He, most manly of men, who has care for the stranger — let Agni with his help pursue our hymns, our visionary thought — for us and for our benefactors, the strongest ones, motivated by prizes, who propel our prayers at length.

traduzione Geldner

Der mannhafteste der Männert der überlegene (?) Agni soll unsere Lobesworte, unsere Dichtung günstig aufnehmen und (ebenso) die mächtigen Gönner, die den Lohn anweisen, die mit ihrem Anhang den Genuss [Nutzen] des Gedichts haben.

traduzione sito
For us [2] he [1] is most manly [4] from manly ones [3], killing enemies [5], let [9] Agni [6] bear [9] the thought [10] by protection [8] of words [7]; {we} ourselves [11] and [12] masters of plenty [14], who {are} [13] the most strong ones [15] bringing plenitude forward [16], impelled [17] the thought [18].

traduzione di śrī Aurobindo, 1914
May this strongest of the Powers and devourer of the destroyers manifest (or “enter into the words and the thinking”) by his presence the Words and their understanding, and may they who in their extension are lords of plenitude brightest in energy pour forth their plenty and give their impulsion to the thought..

[Que lui alors, Agni, le plus fort des Pouvoirs, le dévoreur des destructeurs, par sa présence [ou: protection] manifeste les paroles et leur compréhension (ou: entre dans les mots et leur conception); et ceux qui par l’étendue de leur grandeur sont les Seigneurs de plénitude, les plus resplendissants d’énergie, répandant leur abondance, qu’ils impulsent la pensée..]

saḥ ǀ naḥ ǀ nṛṇām ǀ nṛ-tamaḥ ǀ riśādāḥ ǀ agniḥ ǀ giraḥ ǀ avasā ǀ vetu ǀ dhītim ǀ
tanā ǀ ca ǀ ye ǀ magha-vānaḥ ǀ śaviṣṭhāḥ ǀ vāja-prasūtāḥ ǀ iṣayanta ǀ manma ǁ

saḥ, pron. nom. sg. di tad, egli, questo
naḥ,pron. pers. dat. pl. di aham, “a noi”
nṛṇām, sm. gen. pl. di nṛ-, uomo, eroe (riferito anche a Dei), persona, individuo; genere umano, popolo, stirpe
nṛ-tamaḥ, agg. nom. sg. di nṛtama-, estremamente coraggioso o forte
riśādāḥ, agg. m. nom. di riśādas- che divora o che distrugge i nemici
agniḥ, sost. nom. sg. di agni-, dio del fuoco, agni
giraḥ, agg. abl/gen di gir- che invoca, che si rivolge a, che glorifica;
avasā, sn. str. di avas- favore, protezione, assistenza; godimento, piacere; desiderio degli uomini per gli Dei
vetu, vb. cl. 2ª P., 3ª p. sg. imp. pres. di √vī-, andare, avvicinarsi (sia ad un amico sia ad un nemico); portare aiuto
dhītim, sf. acc. sg. di dhīti- visione, intuizione, pensiero, riflessione, devozione, preghiera

tanā, sf. nom. sg. di tanā- discendente, prole, posterità
ca, e
ye, pron.-agg. rel. nom. pl. di yad-, i quali
maghavānaḥ, agg. m. nom. pl. di maghavan- che possiede o distribuisce doni, generoso, munifico (spec. detto di Indra e altre divinità)
magha- sm. dono, ricompensa, premio
śaviṣṭhāḥ, agg. sup. nom. pl. di śaviṣṭha- il più forte, il più potente, il più valente, il più eroico, il più coraggioso (Ved. strongest, most powerful, MW).
vājaprasūtāḥ, agg. nom. pl. m. di vājaprasūta-, iniziato per una gara o spronato dal coraggio
iṣayanta, v. denominale 3ª p. pl. imp. ? di iṣaya- essere pieno di linfa, essere fresco, attivo o potente, rinvigorire, rinforzare, anima
manma, sn. nom. sg. di manman- pensiero, comprensione, intelletto, saggezza; espressione del pensiero; ie. inno, preghiera, richiesta



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  1. There are a number of interconnected difficulties in this verse, mostly focused on what is happening in cd and the relation of this hemistich with the first one. I take … ca yé maghávānaḥ … as the second part of an “X and which Y” construction with naḥ in pāda a in Wackernagel’s Position: “… for us and (for those) who, our benefactors …” Old (SBE), Re, and WG (if I am reading this last correctly) also consider “us” and our benefactors to be the conjoined terms, though with differences in detail. Ge, however, takes the benefactors as conjoined with Agni, and they should also √vī our hymns and thought along with Agni. The frequency with which maghávānaḥ (and also sūráyaḥ ‘patrons’) are conjoined with forms of the 1st pl. favors the non-Ge interpr.
    Another issue is the identity of the verb iṣáyanta* in d. Ge seems to take it with the fairly well-established stem iṣáyati ‘prospers, derives benefit’ (“… soll günstig aufnehmen”), similarly Re (“jouissent”) and WG (“sich … erquicken”). With Old (SBE) I take it as meaning ‘send, propel’ and ultimately a deverbal formation from iṣnāt́ i, via iṣāyáti, of the type gṛbhṇāt i, gṛbhāyáti, gṛbháyati.
    The final problem is the form tánā. Ge (/WG) and Re take it as an instr. of accompaniment “along with their offspring/descendents.” This is not impossible, but this meaning is ordinarily found in the collocation tanvā́ tánā ca (e.g., VI.49.13). By itself tánā occurs several times with girā́ (e.g., I.38.13, II.2.1) “with song at length,” and I take it that way here as well, semantically construable with mánma ‘prayers’ at the end of the hemistich.